Product Details:
Minimum Order Quantity250 Kilogram
ApplicationSolvents, etc.
Packaging TypeDrum (Barrels) & Tanker
Packaging Size250 Kgs Drum (Barrel) & Tanker load.
FormLiquid
BrandImported
H.S. Code29023000
CAS No.108-88-3

TOLUNE

Manufacturers and Suppliers of tolune in mumbai

akshar international is one of the largest chemical supplier and manufacturer in mumbai. we provides a list of chemicals also we provide one of the best quality tolune. we provide tolune with Minimum Order Quantity 250kg online. which really Used as Solvents, etc.

Here some important information about tolune.

History

The compound was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by a Polish chemist named Filip Walter, who named it rétinnaphte.[10] In 1841, French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville isolated a hydrocarbon from balsam of Tolu (an aromatic extract from the tropical Colombian tree Myroxylon balsamum), which Deville recognized as similar to Walter’s rétinnaphte and to benzene; hence he called the new hydrocarbon benzoène.[11] In 1843, Jöns Jacob Berzelius recommended the name toluin. In 1850, French chemist Auguste Cahours isolated from a distillate of wood a hydrocarbon which he recognized as similar to Deville’s benzoène and which Cahours named toluène.

Chemical properties

Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon in electrophilic aromatic substitution. Because the methyl group has greater electron-releasing properties than a hydrogen atom in the same position, toluene is more reactive than benzene toward electrophiles. It undergoes sulfonation to give p-toluenesulfonic acid, and chlorination by Cl2 in the presence of FeCl3 to give ortho and para isomers of chlorotoluene.
Importantly, the methyl side chain in toluene is susceptible to oxidation. Toluene reacts with Potassium permanganate to yield benzoic acid, and with chromyl chloride to yield benzaldehyde (Étard reaction).

The methyl group undergoes halogenation under free radical conditions. For example, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) heated with toluene in the presence of AIBN leads to benzyl bromide. The same conversion can be effected with elemental bromine in the presence of UV light or even sunlight. Toluene may also be brominated by treating it with HBr and H2O2 in the presence of light.

C6H5CH3 + Br2 → C6H5CH2Br + HBr
C6H5CH2Br + Br2 → C6H5CHBr2 + HBr
The methyl group in toluene undergoes deprotonation only with very strong bases, its pKa is estimated to be approximately 41. Hydrogenation of toluene gives methylcyclohexane. The reaction requires a high pressure of hydrogen and a catalyst.

Production

Toluene occurs naturally at low levels in crude oil and is a byproduct in the production of gasoline by a catalytic reformer or ethylene cracker; It is also a byproduct of the production of coke from coal. Final separation and purification is done by any of the distillation or solvent extraction processes used for BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers).
Laboratory preparation
Toluene is so inexpensively produced industrially that it is not prepared in the laboratory. In principle it could be prepared by a variety of methods. For example, although only of didactical interest, benzene reacts with methyl chloride in presence of a Lewis acid such as aluminium chloride to give toluene:

C6H5H + CH3Cl → C6H5CH3 + HCl
Such reactions are complicated by polymethylation because toluene is more susceptible to alkylation than is benzene.

Uses
Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation:

C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4
The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. When oxidized it yields benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, two important intermediates. In addition to the synthesis of benzene and xylene, toluene is a feedstock for toluene diisocyanate (used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam), trinitrotoluene (the explosive, TNT), and a number of synthetic drugs.

Explosive

Trinitrotoluene explosive synthesis requires toluene. Toluene is nitrated to dinitrotoluene, which is then nitrated to trinitrotoluene.

Foam

Toluene is needed for dinitrotoluene, which is needed for toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce polyurethane foams.

Solvent

Toluene is a common solvent, e.g. for paints, paint thinners, silicone sealants, many chemical reactants, rubber, printing ink, adhesives (glues), lacquers, leather tanners, and disinfectants.

Fuel

Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines. Toluene at 86% by volume fuelled all the turbocharged engines in Formula One during the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team. The remaining 14% was a “filler” of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to meet Formula One fuel restrictions. Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and other factors, the fuel does not vaporize easily unless preheated to 70 °C (158 °F). Honda solved this problem in their Formula One cars by routing the fuel lines through a heat exchanger, drawing energy from the water in the cooling system to heat the fuel.
In Australia in 2003, toluene was found to have been illegally combined with petrol in fuel outlets for sale as standard vehicular fuel. Toluene incurs no fuel excise tax, while other fuels are taxed at more than 40%, providing a greater profit margin for fuel suppliers. The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined.

Toluene is one of a group of fuels that have included in jet fuel surrogate blends.Toluene is used as a jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds.

Recreational use

Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. People inhale toluene-containing products (e.g., paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc.) for its intoxicating effect. The possession and use of toluene and products containing it are regulated in many jurisdictions, for the supposed reason of preventing minors from obtaining these products for recreational drug purposes. As of 2007, 24 U.S. states had laws penalizing use, possession with intent to use, and/or distribution of such inhalants. In 2005 the European Union banned the general sale of products consisting of greater than 0.5% toluene.
Similar to many other solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane and some alkylbenzenes, toluene has been shown to act as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist and GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator.[33] Additionally, toluene has been shown to display antidepressant-like effects in rodents in the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) likely due to its NMDA antagonist properties.

Toluene is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant (“glue sniffing”), likely on account of its euphoric and dissociative effects.